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1882-O EAGLE
MOTTO ADDED (1866-1907)
Ultimately because of the Rev. M. R. Watkinson's insistence that this country must recognize God on its coins (no matter what they might be spent for), Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase ordered that the motto IN GOD WE TRUST be added to the larger gold and silver denominations, approving Longa-cre's scroll design. The Act of March 3, 1865 included a clause mandating the motto. Two gold prototype proof sets were made with motto revs., dated 1865; regular coinage followed in 1866.
From 1866 through 1878, mintages remained small, producing some of the most famous rarities of the series: 1872, 1873, 1875-77 at Philadelphia; 1870 and 1873 at Carson City. The former reflect banks' failure to resume specie payments (redemption in gold or silver of even federal paper); the latter, political pressure: official orders limiting mintages, the limitations being used as an excuse to close the Mint: See Chap. 36, Sect, viii, introductory text. Most of the mints' scanty output went to melting pots; probably not much over 1% survives of any one date or mintmark to this period, except for proofs, where the survival ratio is about 30% to 60%, reflecting that they were meant to be saved. No complete set in uncirculated condition of all dates and mintmarks of this period has ever been assembled. For many, no mint-state survivors are known; F to VF is the usual grade range for most S mints 1866-77 and all Carson City coins 1870-79.
After the Specie Resumption Act of 1878, mintages increased, enough so that when the average collector mentions "Liberty head eagles" or "common date eagles" without other designation, hearers automatically understand the meaning as Philadelphia or S mints 1880-1907.

In those years, most vars. consist of minute differences in position of date or mintmark (the only elements still entered by hand). Because most have been accumulated for their bullion content, owners have seldom studied them. Closer attention to them, as with the half eagles, may reveal more remarkable vars., in particular more overdates besides those of 1879, 1899, and 1906 D, these last all being discoveries of recent decades.

Coinage was interrupted pending preparation of the new St. Gaudens design; see following section. Many Philadelphia business strikes, 1866-77, are known only in VF to EF.
MOTTO ADDED
Designer, Christian Gobrecht, obv. after Benjamin West, rev. after John Reich; motto by Longacre. Engravers, Longacre 1866-68, William Barber 1869-79, later Charles E. Barber. Mints, Philadelphia (no mintmark), New Orleans (mintmark O), San Francisco (S), Carson City (CC), Denver (D). Mint-mark below eagle. Physical Specifications, as before. Authorizing Acts, Jan. 18, 1837; March 3, 1865; Feb 12, 1873.
Grade range, FAIR to UNC.; not collected below VF except for some extreme rarities. Grade standards, as before, except that for FINE expect in addition barely legible but complete motto; for VERY FINE, expect full clear motto. Beware of coins showing traces of solder.
6950 1865 Prototype. [2P] Proofs only.
Judd 449. Obv. as 6946; rev. as next. 1) Mint, SI. Clain-Stefanelli {1970}, fig. 40. 2) Mason 6/17/1870:422, Woodin, Newcomer, Boyd, Farouk, in set with $5, $20. Copper sinkings may come gilt; standard weight of gold, 258 grs. = 16.718 gms., or nearly double the weight of copper.
1882-O Eagle {10,820] Rare. Prohibitively rare in AU. Wayman: 118, UNC.,


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